Difference between revisions of "Code Formatting Conventions"

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m (typo)
(Bulk replace: syntax="C++" -> 'source="cpp" so that we don't have to use a custom syntax highlighting extension)
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Braces in your code should look like the following example:
 
Braces in your code should look like the following example:
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
for (int i = 0; i < t; i++) {
 
for (int i = 0; i < t; i++) {
 
     [...]
 
     [...]
Line 27: Line 27:
 
     [...]
 
     [...]
 
};
 
};
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
Did you see the {}'s on that?
 
Did you see the {}'s on that?
Line 39: Line 39:
 
'''Conventional operators surrounded by a space character'''
 
'''Conventional operators surrounded by a space character'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
a = (b + c) * d;
 
a = (b + c) * d;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''C++ reserved words separated from opening parentheses by a white space'''
 
'''C++ reserved words separated from opening parentheses by a white space'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
while (true) {
 
while (true) {
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Commas followed by a white space'''
 
'''Commas followed by a white space'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
someFunction(a, b, c);
 
someFunction(a, b, c);
</syntax>
+
</source>
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
int d, e;
 
int d, e;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Semicolons followed by a space character, if there is more on a line'''
 
'''Semicolons followed by a space character, if there is more on a line'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
for (int a = 0; b < c; d++)
 
for (int a = 0; b < c; d++)
</syntax>
+
</source>
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
doSomething(e); doSomething(f); // This is probably bad style anyway
 
doSomething(e); doSomething(f); // This is probably bad style anyway
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Semicolons preceded by a space character, if it ends an empty loop body'''
 
'''Semicolons preceded by a space character, if it ends an empty loop body'''
  
 
It should also contain a comment to make it clear that the loop is intentionally empty.
 
It should also contain a comment to make it clear that the loop is intentionally empty.
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item) ; // Look for index of item with an empty loop
 
while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item) ; // Look for index of item with an empty loop
</syntax>
+
</source>
 
The following syntax is also acceptable:
 
The following syntax is also acceptable:
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item)
 
while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item)
 
; //this loop is intentionally empty
 
; //this loop is intentionally empty
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''When declaring class inheritance and in a ? construct, colons should be surrounded by white space'''
 
'''When declaring class inheritance and in a ? construct, colons should be surrounded by white space'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
class BusWheel : public RubberInflatable {
 
class BusWheel : public RubberInflatable {
</syntax>
+
</source>
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
(isNight) ? colorMeDark() : colorMeBright();
 
(isNight) ? colorMeDark() : colorMeBright();
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Indentation level is not increased after namespace clause'''
 
'''Indentation level is not increased after namespace clause'''
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
namespace Scumm {
 
namespace Scumm {
  
Line 100: Line 100:
  
 
} // End of namespace Scumm
 
} // End of namespace Scumm
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Array delete operator has no whitespace before []'''
 
'''Array delete operator has no whitespace before []'''
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
delete[] foo;
 
delete[] foo;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Template definitions'''
 
'''Template definitions'''
  
 
No whitespace between template keyword and <
 
No whitespace between template keyword and <
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
template<typename foo>
 
template<typename foo>
 
void myFunc(foo arg) {
 
void myFunc(foo arg) {
 
     // ...
 
     // ...
 
}
 
}
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Operator overloading'''
 
'''Operator overloading'''
  
 
Operator keyword is NOT separated from the name, except for type conversion operators where it is required.
 
Operator keyword is NOT separated from the name, except for type conversion operators where it is required.
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
struct Foo {
 
struct Foo {
 
     void operator()() {
 
     void operator()() {
Line 130: Line 130:
 
     }
 
     }
 
};
 
};
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Pointers and casts'''
 
'''Pointers and casts'''
  
 
No whitespace after a cast; and in a pointer, we write a whitespace before the star but not after it.
 
No whitespace after a cast; and in a pointer, we write a whitespace before the star but not after it.
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
const char *ptr = (const char *)foobar;
 
const char *ptr = (const char *)foobar;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''References'''
 
'''References'''
  
 
We use the same rule for references as we do for pointers: use a whitespace before the "&" but not after it.
 
We use the same rule for references as we do for pointers: use a whitespace before the "&" but not after it.
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
int i = 0;
 
int i = 0;
 
int &ref = i;
 
int &ref = i;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
== Switch/Case constructs ==
 
== Switch/Case constructs ==
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
switch (cmd) {
 
switch (cmd) {
 
case kSomeCmd:
 
case kSomeCmd:
Line 167: Line 167:
 
     Dialog::handleCommand(sender, cmd, data);
 
     Dialog::handleCommand(sender, cmd, data);
 
}
 
}
</syntax>
+
</source>
 
* Note comment on whether fall through is intentional.
 
* Note comment on whether fall through is intentional.
  
Line 185: Line 185:
 
Camel case starting with upper case.
 
Camel case starting with upper case.
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
class MyClass { /* ... */ };
 
class MyClass { /* ... */ };
 
struct MyStruct { /* ... */ };
 
struct MyStruct { /* ... */ };
 
typedef int MyInt;
 
typedef int MyInt;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Class member variables'''
 
'''Class member variables'''
Line 195: Line 195:
 
Prefixed with '_' and in camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.
 
Prefixed with '_' and in camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
char *_someVariableName;
 
char *_someVariableName;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Class methods'''
 
'''Class methods'''
Line 203: Line 203:
 
Camel case, starting with lowercase.
 
Camel case, starting with lowercase.
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
void thisIsMyFancyMethod();
 
void thisIsMyFancyMethod();
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
'''Local variables'''
 
'''Local variables'''
Line 211: Line 211:
 
Use camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.
 
Use camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
char *someVariableName;
 
char *someVariableName;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
Note that for POD structures it is fine to use this rule too.
 
Note that for POD structures it is fine to use this rule too.
Line 221: Line 221:
 
In general you should avoid global variables, but if it can't be avoided, use 'g_' as prefix, camel case, and start with lowercase
 
In general you should avoid global variables, but if it can't be avoided, use 'g_' as prefix, camel case, and start with lowercase
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
int g_someGlobalVariable;
 
int g_someGlobalVariable;
</syntax>
+
</source>
  
 
== Special comments ==
 
== Special comments ==
Line 242: Line 242:
 
There are many ways to mark such comments, but developers are encouraged to use the JavaDoc style:
 
There are many ways to mark such comments, but developers are encouraged to use the JavaDoc style:
  
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
/**
 
/**
 
  * Move ("warp") the mouse cursor to the specified position in virtual
 
  * Move ("warp") the mouse cursor to the specified position in virtual
Line 250: Line 250:
 
  */
 
  */
 
virtual void warpMouse(int x, int y) = 0;
 
virtual void warpMouse(int x, int y) = 0;
</syntax>
+
</source>
 
(See [http://doxygen.scummvm.org/d9/df4/classOSystem.html#ecab84670def917107d6c1b5ca3b82c3 here] for the docs generated from this.)
 
(See [http://doxygen.scummvm.org/d9/df4/classOSystem.html#ecab84670def917107d6c1b5ca3b82c3 here] for the docs generated from this.)
  
Line 256: Line 256:
  
 
If you want to add a brief explanation of a variable or function ''after'' its declaration, this is the correct syntax:
 
If you want to add a brief explanation of a variable or function ''after'' its declaration, this is the correct syntax:
<syntax type="C++">
+
<source lang="cpp">
 
int16 x; ///< The horizontal part of the point
 
int16 x; ///< The horizontal part of the point
 
int16 y; ///< The vertical part of the point
 
int16 y; ///< The vertical part of the point
</syntax>
+
</source>
 
(See [http://doxygen.scummvm.org/d7/d66/structCommon_1_1Point.html#2d868735aeaaf391ce9b3df9232c031f here] for the docs generated from this.)
 
(See [http://doxygen.scummvm.org/d7/d66/structCommon_1_1Point.html#2d868735aeaaf391ce9b3df9232c031f here] for the docs generated from this.)
  

Revision as of 09:01, 11 May 2016

Use common sense

These are conventions which we try to follow when writing code for ScummVM. Sticking to a common set of formatting / indention rules makes it easier to read through our source base (which now exceed half a million lines of code by far, making this quite important). If you want to submit patches, please try to adhere to these rules.

We don't always follow these rules slavishly, in certain cases it is OK (and in fact might be favorable) to stray from them. Applying common sense, as usual, is a good idea.

In the following examples tabs are replaced by spaces for visual consistency with the Code Formatting Conventions. But in actual code, use tabs for indentations (our tabs are assumed to be 4 spaces wide).

Hugging braces

Braces in your code should look like the following example:

for (int i = 0; i < t; i++) {
    [...]
}

if (j < k) {
    [...]
} else if (j > k) {
    [...]
} else {
    [...]
}

class Dummy {
    [...]
};

Did you see the {}'s on that?

Tab indents, with tabstop at four spaces

Says it all, really.

Whitespaces

Conventional operators surrounded by a space character

a = (b + c) * d;

C++ reserved words separated from opening parentheses by a white space

while (true) {

Commas followed by a white space

someFunction(a, b, c);
int d, e;

Semicolons followed by a space character, if there is more on a line

for (int a = 0; b < c; d++)
doSomething(e); doSomething(f);	// This is probably bad style anyway

Semicolons preceded by a space character, if it ends an empty loop body

It should also contain a comment to make it clear that the loop is intentionally empty.

while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item) ; // Look for index of item with an empty loop

The following syntax is also acceptable:

while (i < length - 1 && array[++i] != item)
	; //this loop is intentionally empty

When declaring class inheritance and in a ? construct, colons should be surrounded by white space

class BusWheel : public RubberInflatable {
(isNight) ? colorMeDark() : colorMeBright();

Indentation level is not increased after namespace clause

namespace Scumm {

byte Actor::kInvalidBox = 0;

void Actor::initActorClass(ScummEngine *scumm) {
    _vm = scumm;
}

} // End of namespace Scumm

Array delete operator has no whitespace before []

delete[] foo;

Template definitions

No whitespace between template keyword and <

template<typename foo>
void myFunc(foo arg) {
    // ...
}

Operator overloading

Operator keyword is NOT separated from the name, except for type conversion operators where it is required.

struct Foo {
    void operator()() {
        // ...
    }

    operator bool() {
        return true;
    }
};

Pointers and casts

No whitespace after a cast; and in a pointer, we write a whitespace before the star but not after it.

const char *ptr = (const char *)foobar;

References

We use the same rule for references as we do for pointers: use a whitespace before the "&" but not after it.

int i = 0;
int &ref = i;

Switch/Case constructs

switch (cmd) {
case kSomeCmd:
    someCmd();
    // Fall Through intended
case kSomeVerySimilarCmd:
    someMoreCmd();
    break;
case kSaveCmd:
    save();
    break;
case kLoadCmd:
case kPlayCmd:
    close();
    break;
default:
    Dialog::handleCommand(sender, cmd, data);
}
  • Note comment on whether fall through is intentional.

Naming

Constants

Basically, you have two choices (this has historical reasons, and we probably should try to unify this one day):

  1. Camel case with prefix 'k':
     kSomeKludgyConstantName 
  2. All upper case, with words separated by underscores (no leading/trailing underscores):
    SOME_KLUDGY_CONSTANT_NAME

(As a side remark, we recommend avoiding #define for creating constants, because these can lead to weird and difficult to track down conflicts. Instead use enums or the const keyword.)

Type names

Camel case starting with upper case.

class MyClass { /* ... */ };
struct MyStruct { /* ... */ };
typedef int MyInt;

Class member variables

Prefixed with '_' and in camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.

char *_someVariableName;

Class methods

Camel case, starting with lowercase.

void thisIsMyFancyMethod();

Local variables

Use camel case (Yo! no underscore separators), starting with lowercase.

char *someVariableName;

Note that for POD structures it is fine to use this rule too.

Global variables

In general you should avoid global variables, but if it can't be avoided, use 'g_' as prefix, camel case, and start with lowercase

int g_someGlobalVariable;

Special comments

Special Keywords

The following goes slightly beyond code formatting: We use certain keywords (together with an explanatory text) to mark certain sections of our code. In particular:

  • FIXME marks code that contains hacks or bad temporary workarounds, things that really should be revised at a later point.
  • TODO marks incomplete code, or things that could be done better but are left for the future.
  • WORKAROUND marks code that works around bugs in the original game, like script bugs. Sometimes these bugs worked in the original due to bugs in the original engine, sometimes the bug was visible in the original, too. It's important that you explain here what exactly you work around, and if applicable, refer to relevant tracker items!

Doxygen documentation comments

ScummVM uses the Doxygen software to generate HTML documentation for the codebase (available here).

Doxygen supports documentation blocks. These are specially-formatted comments that doxygen prints out in the generated documentation. They are similar in purpose to Java's JavaDoc or Python's docstrings.

There are many ways to mark such comments, but developers are encouraged to use the JavaDoc style:

/**
 * Move ("warp") the mouse cursor to the specified position in virtual
 * screen coordinates.
 * @param x             the new x position of the mouse
 * @param y             the new y position of the mouse
 */
virtual void warpMouse(int x, int y) = 0;

(See here for the docs generated from this.)

As shown in the example, documentation blocks also support several special commands such as param. Those are prefixed with either @ or \, but developers should always use @.

If you want to add a brief explanation of a variable or function after its declaration, this is the correct syntax:

int16 x;	///< The horizontal part of the point
int16 y;	///< The vertical part of the point

(See here for the docs generated from this.)

For more information, visit the official documentation:

Automatically converting code to our conventions

The following settings for Artistic Style (also known as astyle) approximate our code formatting conventions and can be used to quickly convert a big bunch of source files to our conventions. Note that you may still have to manually clean up some stuff afterwards.

indent=tab=4
style=attach
pad-oper
pad-header
align-pointer=name
unpad-paren
indent-preprocessor
convert-tabs

Emacs style

Put the following in your .emacsrc file

(setq-default default-tab-width 4)
(setq-default c-basic-offset 4)
(setq-default indent-tabs-mode t)